Invariants for tendex and vortex fields
Tendex and vortex fields, defined by the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl curvature tensor, form the basis of a recently developed approach to visualizing spacetime curvature. In analogy to electric and magnetic fields, these fields are coordinate-dependent. However, in a further analogy, we can form invariants from the tendex and vortex fields that are invariant under coordinate transformations, just as certain combinations of the electric and magnetic fields are invariant under coordinate transformations. We derive these invariants, and provide a simple, analytical demonstration for nonspherically symmetric slices of a Schwarzschild spacetime. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Dennison, Kenneth A. and Baumgarte, Thomas W., "Invariants for tendex and vortex fields" (2012). Physics Faculty Publications. 91.