Year of Graduation


Level of Access

Restricted Access Thesis

Embargo Period


Department or Program

Physics and Astronomy

First Advisor

Stephen G. Naculich


Scattering amplitudes, used for calculating particle interaction probabilities, are
difficult to calculate in theories beyond the Standard Model. These theories are
often formulated as SO(N) gauge theories. This paper addresses this challenge
by deriving group-theoretic constraints on four-point color-ordered amplitudes
in SO(N) gauge theories at all loop order. We find that there exist 6L − 14
linearly independent color factors for L ≥ 5 and we derive their explicit form.


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