East–west, collectivist-individualist: A cross-cultural examination of temperament in toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S.

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The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and U.S. samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East–West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than U.S., Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than U.S., Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East–West distinctions in shaping temperament development.

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