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Longitudinal continuity was investigated for fine-grained and factor-level aspects of temperament measured with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (ECBQ), and Children's Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ). Considerable homotypic continuity was found. Convergent and discriminant validity of the measures was supported, as all fine-grained dimensions exhibited stability across adjacent measurement periods, and all scales found on both the ECBQ and CBQ were most highly correlated with their equivalent scales. At the factor level, Surgency and Negative Affect factors were stable across all time points, and Effortful Control/Regulatory Capacity was stable across adjacent time periods. High-Intensity Pleasure, Activity Level, and Impulsivity contributed strongly to continuity of Surgency, and Sadness, Frustration, and Falling Reactivity played strong roles in the continuity of Negative Affect. Heterotypic continuity was also found. High levels of Infant Surgency predicted high toddler Effortful Control, whereas high toddler Surgency predicted low Effortful Control in preschoolers. Infant Surgency dimensions especially predicted Toddler Attention Shifting and Low-Intensity Pleasure, and toddler Activity Level was most closely associated with later deficits in Effortful Control. Inverse relations were also obtained between Negative Affect and Effortful Control, with substantial negative connections between toddler Negative Affect and preschool Attention Focusing and Inhibitory Control. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.