We introduce a new set of symmetries obeyed by tree-level gauge-theory amplitudes involving at least one gluon. The symmetry acts as a momentum-dependent shift on the color factors of the amplitude. Using the radiation vertex expansion, we prove the invariance under this color-factor shift of the n-gluon amplitude, as well as amplitudes involving massless or massive particles in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group with spin zero, one-half, or one. The Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations are a direct consequence of this symmetry. We also introduce the cubic vertex expansion of an amplitude, and use it to derive a generalized-gauge-invariant constraint on the kinematic numerators of the amplitude. We show that the amplitudes of the bi-adjoint scalar theory are invariant under the color-factor symmetry, and use this to derive the null eigenvectors of the propagator matrix. We generalize the color-factor shift to loop level, and prove the invariance under this shift of one-loop n-gluon amplitudes in any theory that admits a color-kinematic-dual representation of numerators. We show that the one-loop color-factor symmetry implies known relations among the integrands of one-loop color-ordered amplitudes.
Brown, Robert W. and Naculich, Stephen G., "BCJ relations from a new symmetry of gauge-theory amplitudes" (2016). Physics Faculty Publications. 107.