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In most invertebrates, multiple species-specific isoforms of tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) are common. In contrast, only a single conserved TRP isoform, APSGFLGMRamide, has been documented in decapod crustaceans, leading to the hypothesis that it is the sole TRP present in this arthropod order. Previous studies of crustacean TRPs have focused on neuronal tissue, but the recent demonstration of TRPs in midgut epithelial cells in Cancer species led us to question whether other TRPs are present in the gut, as is the case in insects. Using direct tissue matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry, in combination with sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation, we found that at least one additional TRP is present in Cancer irroratus, Cancer borealis, Cancer magister, and Cancer productus. The novel TRP isoform, TPSGFLGMRamide, was present not only in the midgut, but also in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In addition, we identified an unprocessed TRP precursor APSGFLGMRG, which was detected in midgut tissues only. TRP immunohistochemistry, in combination with preadsorption studies, suggests that APSGFLGMRamide and TPSGFLGMRamide are co-localized in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), which is contained within the STNS. Exogenous application of TPSGFLGMRamide to the STG elicited a pyloric motor pattern that was identical to that elicited by APSGFLGMRamide, whereas APSGFLGMRG did not alter the pyloric motor pattern. © 2007 The Authors.