The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)1 are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAKdependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGs in planta. Using N14/ N15 isotopic in vivo metabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominant WAK allele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase/ phosphatase-mediated signaling pathway initiated by cell wall changes.
Kohorn, Bruce D.; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Sussman, Michael R.; and Kohorn, Susan L., "Rapid oligo-galacturonide induced changes in protein phosphorylation in arabidopsis" (2016). Biology Faculty Publications. 160.